Describe the structure of urban local-self government in India

The urban local self-government structure in India is a multi-tiered system that empowers cities and towns to manage their local affairs.

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It consists of the following components:

1. **Municipal Corporation**:

   – At the top of the urban local self-government hierarchy are Municipal Corporations. These are established in large metropolitan areas and big cities.

   – Municipal Corporations are headed by a Mayor and have a directly elected Municipal Council or Corporation, which is responsible for making decisions on various urban issues.

2. **Municipalities**:

   – Municipalities are established in smaller and medium-sized towns and cities. They can be further classified into various types, such as Municipalities, Municipal Councils, and Nagar Panchayats, depending on the population and revenue criteria.

   – Municipalities are governed by a Chairperson or a President, and they have elected bodies like Municipal Councils or Nagar Panchayat Committees.

3. **Wards**:

   – Urban areas are divided into wards, each of which elects its representative to the Municipal Corporation or Municipality. These representatives are known as Ward Councillors or Ward Members.

4. **Mayor/Chairperson**:

   – The Mayor or Chairperson, depending on the type of urban local body, is the ceremonial head of the city or town. They are often elected by the elected members of the Municipal Corporation or Municipality.

5. **Municipal Commissioner**:

   – In Municipal Corporations and some larger Municipalities, there is a Municipal Commissioner who is a senior government official responsible for administrative and executive functions.

6. **Standing Committees**:

   – Urban local bodies have various standing committees responsible for specific aspects of municipal governance, such as finance, public works, health, education, and social justice.

7. **State Government**:

   – The state government has a supervisory and coordinating role in urban local self-governance. It can enact laws, provide financial assistance, and oversee the functioning of urban local bodies.

8. **State Finance Commission**:

   – As mentioned in a previous response, the State Finance Commission plays a vital role in determining the fiscal relationship between state governments and urban local bodies, ensuring they have adequate financial resources.

9. **Urban Development Department**:

   – This department at the state level is responsible for formulating policies and programs related to urban development and local self-government.

10. **State Election Commission**:

   – It conducts elections for urban local bodies and ensures the democratic process is followed.

The structure of urban local self-government in India is designed to promote local governance and decision-making, allowing urban areas to address their specific needs and challenges effectively. It ensures that cities and towns have a say in their development, service delivery, and resource management.

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