Critically examine central administrative structure of the Mughals

The central administrative structure of the Mughals was a complex system that encompassed various administrative departments and officials.

While it had certain strengths, it also had some inherent weaknesses. Here is a critical examination of the central administrative structure of the Mughals: 


  1. Bureaucratic Organization: The Mughal administration had a well-organized bureaucratic structure, with clearly defined departments and hierarchies. This helped in the efficient functioning of the empire and the implementation of policies. 
  1. Centralized Authority: The emperor held supreme authority and was responsible for decision-making. This allowed for swift and decisive actions in times of crisis or emergencies. 
  1. Revenue Administration: The Mughal revenue administration, headed by the Diwan or finance minister, played a crucial role in collecting revenue and managing the empire’s finances. The system of revenue assessment and collection, although burdensome for the peasants, provided a steady flow of revenue to the imperial treasury. 
  1. Mansabdari System: The Mughals introduced the mansabdari system, which was a rank-based system of military and civil administration. This allowed for effective organization and control over the vast Mughal military and administrative apparatus. 


  1. Lack of Succession Rules: The lack of clear and consistent rules of succession often led to succession disputes and power struggles after the death of an emperor. This resulted in instability and weakened the central authority of the empire. 
  1. Corruption and Nepotism: Corruption and nepotism were prevalent in the Mughal administration, with officials often exploiting their positions for personal gain. This led to inefficiency, revenue leakage, and discontent among the populace. 
  1. Communication and Transportation Challenges: The vastness of the Mughal Empire posed challenges in terms of communication and transportation. The time taken to relay orders and receive reports often resulted in delays and hindered effective governance. 
  1. Lack of Local Autonomy: The centralized nature of the Mughal administration limited local autonomy and the participation of regional elites in governance. This alienated local rulers and contributed to resistance and rebellions in various parts of the empire. 
  1. Over-reliance on Personal Rule: The Mughal administration heavily relied on the personal rule of the emperor, which could lead to inefficiencies and delays in decision-making in the absence of an effective and capable ruler. 

In conclusion, while the central administrative structure of the Mughals had its strengths, such as bureaucratic organization and revenue administration, it also had weaknesses, including succession disputes, corruption, and communication challenges. These weaknesses, along with other factors, ultimately contributed to the decline and fragmentation of the Mughal Empire. 

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