Briefly describe the constitutional provisions, merits and demerits of Administrative Tribunals in India

Administrative Tribunals in India are bodies established under Article 323-A and Article 323-B of the Indian Constitution.

These provisions grant the authority to create specialized tribunals for the adjudication of specific administrative and service matters. Article 323-A pertains to administrative tribunals for the Union and Article 323-B for the states.


  1. **Expertise**: Administrative Tribunals consist of experts in their respective fields, ensuring specialized and informed decisions in areas such as taxation, labor, environment, and more.
  • **Swift Justice**: They expedite the adjudication process, leading to quicker resolutions compared to traditional courts, which can be bogged down with a backlog of cases.
  • **Reduced Judicial Burden**: By handling specific administrative disputes, tribunals alleviate the workload of regular courts, allowing them to focus on core judicial functions.
  • **Accessibility**: Administrative Tribunals are more accessible to the common citizen, often located in different regions, making it easier for people to approach them.
  • **Cost-Effective**: The cost of pursuing cases in tribunals is often lower than going through the regular judicial system, making justice more affordable.


  1. **Limited Judicial Review**: Decisions of administrative tribunals are subject to limited judicial review by regular courts, which can lead to concerns about accountability and fairness.
  • **Multiplicity of Tribunals**: The proliferation of specialized tribunals can create confusion, as there are multiple bodies with overlapping jurisdictions.
  • **Lack of Uniformity**: Different tribunals may interpret laws differently, leading to inconsistency in decisions and legal precedents.
  • **Bureaucratic Influence**: Some argue that administrative tribunals may be influenced by the executive branch due to their close association with the government.
  • **Adequacy of Remedies**: The remedy provided by tribunals may not always be sufficient, particularly in complex cases, where a more holistic approach may be required.
  • **Lack of Transparency**: Concerns about transparency and public trust may arise due to the perceived opacity of some tribunal proceedings.

In summary, while administrative tribunals in India offer advantages such as specialization, efficiency, and accessibility, they also face challenges related to judicial review, consistency, and potential bureaucratic influence. Balancing these merits and demerits is essential for ensuring an effective and just administrative tribunal system.

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