What are the major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

China perceives several threats from India, which can be attributed to various geopolitical, strategic, and historical factors.

Some of the major threats that China perceives from India include:

  1. Territorial Disputes: The longstanding border disputes between China and India, particularly along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the Himalayan region, pose a significant threat. The unresolved border issues, such as the territorial claims in Arunachal Pradesh (which China refers to as South Tibet) and Aksai Chin, have resulted in military standoffs and tensions between the two countries.
  • Strategic Rivalry: China perceives India as a strategic rival in the region. India’s growing economic and military capabilities, coupled with its aspirations to be a global power, challenge China’s dominance in Asia. As India strengthens its relationships with other regional powers and expands its influence, China sees it as a potential counterweight to its own aspirations.
  • Regional Influence: China views India’s increasing influence in the Indian Ocean region and its efforts to deepen ties with countries in Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and the Middle East as a threat to its own regional interests. India’s “Act East” policy, infrastructure development projects, and partnerships with countries like Japan and the United States are seen as attempts to contain China’s influence.
  • Tibetan Issue and Dalai Lama: China perceives India’s support for the Tibetan government-in-exile and the presence of the Dalai Lama in India as threats to its control over Tibet. The Dalai Lama’s visits to sensitive border regions and India’s hosting of Tibetan refugees strain bilateral relations and are seen as undermining China’s sovereignty.
  • Security Cooperation: China is wary of India’s security cooperation with countries that it views as adversaries or competitors, such as the United States, Japan, and Australia. India’s participation in the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) and its deepening defense ties with these nations are seen as attempts to contain China’s rise and limit its regional influence.
  • Nuclear Capabilities: China views India’s nuclear capabilities as a potential threat to its own security. Both countries possess nuclear weapons and are outside the framework of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). China closely monitors India’s nuclear doctrine, modernization efforts, and strategic partnerships to assess any potential challenges to its deterrence posture.
  • Taiwan and South China Sea: China perceives India’s engagement with Taiwan as a sensitive issue that undermines its “One China” policy. India’s participation in the Indo-Pacific region, including joint naval exercises and freedom of navigation operations, is seen by China as interference in the South China Sea dispute, where it has territorial claims.
  • Economic Competition: China considers India as a competitor in economic terms. Both countries have large populations, emerging markets, and seek foreign investment and market access. China’s dominance in manufacturing and trade surpluses has faced challenges from India’s efforts to boost its manufacturing sector and attract foreign investment.

It is important to note that these perceptions are based on China’s perspective and do not necessarily reflect the actual intentions or actions of India. The views presented here represent China’s assessment of the threats it perceives from India, and they contribute to the complexities of the bilateral relationship between the two countries.

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